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Canzoni contro la guerra - Canzoni che si possono scaricare
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  1. e-book Mentre laquila sta mirando il sole - Score
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  4. International Jazz Day

Madrigali per cantare et sonare Luzzaschi, Luzzasco, Description Music recording — 1 online resource 1 sound file. Madrigals book 3 [electronic resource] []. Selections Gesualdo, Carlo, principe di Venosa, approximately Come vivi cor mio : canzonetta ; All'ombra degli allori : canzonetta Mass in 40 parts []. London, England : Decca, [] Description Music recording — 1 online resource 1 sound file Sound: digital.

Celebrating the Rediscovery of a Long-lost Mass in 40 Parts. A feast of Renaissance choral music from Italy and England, the album and bonus DVD reveals a work by the Italian, Alessandro Striggio - believed lost until the recent discovery of vocal parts, in Paris. Striggio travelled extensively to the courts of Europe and it was probably a performance during his visit to Elizabethan England in that inspired Tallis to write Spem in alium, which is performed here with rarely heard instrumental accompaniment and the benefit of a major piece of textual change reinforcing the message of forgiveness.

The DVD includes a short documentary about the rediscovery of the mass, as well as excerpts from the recording in 5. I Fagiolini is an acclaimed British solo-voice ensemble specialising in Renaissance and Contemporary music. An inspired programmer, Robert Hollingworth founded the group in Orlando furioso : madrigali sul poema di Ludovico Ariosto []. Il pastor fido [electronic resource] : madrigali amorosi []. Summary Il pastor fido IV, ix. Se tu dolce mio ben mi saettasti ; Dorinda, ah!

Rosa e orticha [electronic resource] : music of the Trecento []. Ensemble Syntagma. Performer [S. Sesto libro de madrigali, [electronic resource] []. Amori e ombre [electronic resource] []. Lagrime di San Pietro [electronic resource] []. Lagrime di S. Pietro Lasso, Orlando di, Madrigali a quatro voci. Libro primo [electronic resource] []. Madrigals, voices 4 , book 1 Marenzio, Luca, Madrigali, cacce, ballate [electronic resource] [].

E cantare e sonare carolare Gherardello, da Firenze, or Summary E cantare e sonare e carolare. Tosto che l'alba : caccia ; Per prender cacciagion : madrigale ; Intrand'ad abitar per una selva : madrigale La bella e la vezzosa cavriola : madrigale ; L'aquila bella negra : madrigale ; Con levrieri e mastini : madrigale Madrigals book 1 [electronic resource] []. Madrigals, voices Book 2 [electronic resource] []. Missa sancti evasii e musica vocale []. Ottavo libro de' madrigali. Paris : Zig-Zag Territoires, [], p Il primo libro dei madrigali [electronic resource] [].

Madrigals, voices 5 , book 1 Frescobaldi, Girolamo, What happens when you bring the worlds of jazz and Monteverdi together? Is there a musical meeting-point where the two can exist? Claudio Cavina has believed in this possibility for some time, witness some very 'modern' moments in his recent Glossa recordings of the Scherzi musicali and L'incoronazione di Poppea. Yet, this is not La Venexiana playing jazz: Cavina and his musicians do not change a note of the original scores. Instead they bring all their experience and expertise of playing Monteverdi's madrigals, sacred music the Vespers being their current performing focus and operas to bear on a group of 'ballads' from the 17th -century, but in the company of a select quartet of improvising jazz musicians on saxophone, accordion, double bass and drums and all with the warm, soaring, story-telling vocal tones of Roberta Mameli shining through as protagonist.

Sacred and secular music [electronic resource] : Auss tieffer noth : Feinslieb, du hast mich gfangen []. Selections Hassler, Hans Leo, The significant differences in aroma and taste also were detected by untrained judges. Evaluation of sensory function and recovery after replantation of fingertips at Zone I in children. Sensory function is the most significant criterion when evaluating the prognosis of replanted fingers. Current clinical research has focused on surgical techniques and indications for finger replantation; however, few studies have focused on recovery of finger sensory function after replantation.

This study retrospectively assessed data of eight patients who had undergone nine Zone I replantations of the fingertips in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University of China from July Clinical scoring and instrumental analysis to evaluate skin types. The biology of the skin is very complex, and there are a number of methods used to classify the different skin types.

It is possible to measure or quantify the characteristics of the specific skin types, using a variety of techniques that can objectively evaluate the properties of the skin in a noninvasive manner. To clinically characterize different skin types by dermatological evaluation and biophysical and skin imaging techniques, and to evaluate the relationship between the different characteristics.

The study recruited 26 volunteers. Clinical scoring was performed by a dermatologist who classified the volunteers' skin as normal or dry group 1 and combination or oily group 2. Objective measurements included skin microrelief, pH, oiliness, water content of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss TEWL.

Positive correlations were found between the level of skin oiliness and skin texture obtained from both instrumental analysis and clinical scoring. The combination and oily skin types had higher clinical scores for shine intensity, oiliness and tendency to pigmentation, and also had higher objective scores for sebum secretion, TEWL and roughness. Biophysical and skin imaging techniques are effective tools to help characterize skin type and assist in clinical dermatology. We found that different skin types had different characteristics related to skin microrelief, oiliness and TEWL, and therefore require specific dermatological treatments.

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes. In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors pear-lemon grass and josta berry. The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device.

Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]. The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built.

Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Individuals with fragile X syndrome FXS , especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ASD , face many sensory processing challenges.

However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit.

Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis sage were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours P sage extract sticks P sage extract of , , or Sensory evaluation of the air in 14 office buildings.

The perceived air quality was assessed in eight mechanically and six naturally ventilated office buildings. On average, 44 offices were investigated in each building. A panel of 11 trained subjects assessed the perceived air quality in the spaces directly in the sensory unit decipol. The average The perceived air quality averaged 4. Within the buildings there was a large variation in perceived air quality between The results indicate that the occupants' behaviour is important for the pollution load and the air quality in offices Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory evaluation of chicken meat.

The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical sensory characteristics of chicken meat has been evaluated. Chicken meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator Degree Centigrade. Immediately after irradiation, general composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of chicken meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analysis of chicken meat were evaluated at weekly up to end of the storage period. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load, and increased the shelf-life of chicken meat.

Total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen VBN and lipid oxidation value in chicken meat were not affected by gamma irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and un-irradiated chicken meat. Ethics Requirement Score : new tool for evaluating ethics in publications.

To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score , a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author's guidelines or instructions in each journal website.

Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal.

Objective To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score , a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Result The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score.

Conclusion Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products. Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products.

Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol.

Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk. The soybean seed chemical quality traits including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits , soymilk chemical character soluble solid , and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes.

e-book Mentre laquila sta mirando il sole - Score

Six sensory parameters i. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce[Gamma irradiation; Fermented anchovy; Color; Flavor compounds; Electronic nose; Sensory evaluation.

Kim, J. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

There is a large bibliography on descriptive sensory analysis of wines. Free-choice profiling, a new descriptive sensory technique, was applied to develop a profile with respect to appearance, aroma and taste for seven Brazilian Welchriesling wines. Twelve panelists, without experience with the technique, were selected using triangular tests. The Grid method was used to obtain the list of descriptors.

The number of attributes developed for each judge vary from seven to thirteen. Generalized Procrustes Analysis were applied to the data. During fifteen days, fifteen sessions were realized: two to select the assessors, four to develop the terminology, two to check the score sheets and seven to evaluate the wines balanced incomplete block design. It was observed good discrimination between the samples. Wines were.

Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values p sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly p scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat.

Sensory evaluation of a highly nutritive bread, formulated for populations suffering food emergencies, preserved with ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to evaluate with sensorial analysis, the feasibility of extending the shelf life at room temperature of highly nutritive bread, specially formulated for people suffering alimentary emergencies such as floods, earthquakes, geographical isolation or malnourishment, by means of ionizing radiation. Twenty one breads were formulated and manufactured employing wheat and soybean flours, dehydrated whey, skim milk and egg, vegetal oil, water, and some commercial food additives as emulsifiers and water retention substances.

A final formulation was chosen by means of a preliminary sensory evaluation. Bibliographic estimations were made on its nutritional quality as compared to that of a regular wheat bread; improvements were found on vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids and fibre. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 43 days. Sensory analysis was performed with a panel of about 50 consumers on days 3, 29 and 43, evaluating aroma, aspect, colour, flavour, texture and general acceptability with hedonic scores ranging from 1 to 9.

No significant differences between control and irradiated samples were found, being the latter afforded scores close to 7 even at the end of the storage period. Control samples had to be discarded on day 6 due to visible mould growth. So this bread formulation, suitable to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of a population under alimentary emergency, attained at least a 7 fold shelf life increase when treated.

Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard. Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli OH7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance.

A review of sensory and instrumental methods used to evaluate the texture of fish muscle. The texture of fish muscle is an important quality attribute that depends on several parameters, both intrinsic and extrinsic. Its evaluation by sensory means is the result of a combination of several parameters that cover every impression from when the fish first comes into contact with a surface The samples were served to semi-trained panelists.

Microbiological quality and sensory evaluation of new cured products obtained from sheep and goat meat. The present work aims to study the effect of species and seasoning time on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cured legs of sheep and goats. Three cure periods were used: two for sheep and one for goat legs.

Legs of lamb were cured for 7 and 8 months whereas legs of goat were cured for 8 months only. Samples were evaluated regarding pH, water activity and indicators of food microbial q uality and safety. A trained panel carried out the sensory analysis, with a Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition is a common nutritional disorder in developing countries and constitutes a major public health problem in young children and elderly people. This project is aimed at evaluating the acceptability of plantain-peanut sandwich and roasted at different temperatures. Luigi Collarile, on the other hand, links the closing of the print shop to the economic crisis and the plague epidemic in Venice after the campaigns against the Turks.

Oxford Music Online. With intaglio printing techniques, he could realise the notation of the Toccate more completely, as in a manuscript, rendering all the tremoletti and other passages using the smallest note values without complication, and beaming notes with ease. He handed over the pieces to Verovio, who signed the dedication with his own name as editore. Unlike Merulo, he signed the dedication himself, and thus was probably more involved in the publication process. The possibilities of engraving must have appealed to him as much as they did to Merulo.

Of the single-print composers, only Giovanni Francesco Anerio c. Giovanni Francesco was associated with the Oratorians, having been miraculously healed by Filippo Neri in , and worked as a priest in various Roman churches as well as in the Collegio Romano. He belonged to the fourth generation of a family whose members had published books on law, medicine and botany as well as poetry, published in Rome, Bologna and Venice, and reprinted as far as Frankfurt, Cologne and Paris.

As Ottavio recalled in the dedication of the Arie devote, his father Castore was the most famous member of the family. His medical publications were used well into the nineteenth century. After the death of his first wife in , Castore married into the Roman nobility. Ottavio c. He also published various treatises on medicine, philosophy, theology and musical poetry, and may have worked as maestro di capella in Viterbo.

Pietro, S. Giovanni in Laterano, S. Maria Maggiore, S. Luigi dei Francesi and SS. As far as we know, four composers published by Verovio, all represented with only one canzonetta, were never active in Rome. It was not possible to trace Anto Orlandino and Jacomo Ricordi, both represented with one work in the Ghirlanda. Paolo Bellasio — moved from his native Verona to Rome for a few years, then moved to Orvieto, Verona and Rome again between and Both the alto and canto parts identify Ingegnieri as composer.

Some, like the Fleming del Mel c. All were affiliated with various churches and re institutions. Table 5. They were active as singers, organists, maestro di cappella and official or occasional composers. Church Composers S. Pietro A. Crivelli, R. Giovanelli, G. Lucatelli, A.

Pacelli, G. Zuchelli Cappella Sistina F. Anerio, G. Anerio, A. Giovanelli, O. Griffi, G. Nanino, G. Palestrina Cappella Giulia R. Giovanelli, A. Palestrina S. Giovanni in Laterano G. Dragoni, G. Palestrina, P. Quagliati, F. Soriano, A. Stabile S. Maria Maggiore G. Stabile SS. Giovanelli, Marenzio, G. Nanino, A. Palestrina, J. Ricordi S. Luigi dei Francesi F.

Anerio, R. Nanino, F. Soriano SS. Crocifisso F. Quagliati a Table 5. Riepe , p. Felice Anerio c. He was one of the most established composers in Rome at the time. Three of the collections exist in different versions, containing either a changed order or fewer pieces. Nanino G. Nanino 1 Lodi della G. Nanino 4 musica Table 5. This suggests that they had a special relationship with Verovio. As mentioned before, information recorded in different states of the plates of the title page of a given collection is not always identical.

Martin van Buyten or van Buijten fl. Many writing masters sought him out to engrave their writing-books and broadsides. In the other seven copies, Martin van Buyten is no longer mentioned, and we encounter the description raccolte da Simone Verovio. Intagliate et stampate dal medesimo collected by Simone Verovio, engraved and printed by the same. It seems likely that Simone Verovio compiled this collection and was responsible for writing the title page, dedication and the pages with the voice parts.

It is plausible that Martin van Buyten engraved these and perhaps even designed the decorations of the frontispiece. Why then do most of the later copies state that Verovio engraved and printed them? And why is the name Martin van Buyten removed from the title plate? Several possible scenarios could explain these discrepancies. Perhaps Verovio engraved the added plates with the intabulations, whereas van Buyten was responsible for the original plates, containing the voice parts, title page and dedication.

The hypothesis that van Buyten exclusively engraved the frontispiece of the Diletto spirituale is rendered less likely by the fact that his name appears as the engraver, and Verovio solely as writer, just as on the title page of the Melodie spirituali by Peetrino This shows that van Buyten was probably responsible for engraving the music too. Fiore also proposes that Verovio fell out with van Buyten and virtually eliminated his name, taking the credit for the engraving himself. Just as in the Diletto spirituale, Simone Verovio claims to have compiled raccolte all the anthologies apart from the Devoto pianto.

He is not indicated as compiler in all states of the title pages of the other collections. Born at Nancy in Lorraine, probably in , Blancus was active in Rome from — To summarize, Verovio seems to have written personally large sections of the prints associated with his name, while others, perhaps Blancus, were probably also involved. Identifying the different writers involved in the preparation of the prints more definitely would require a thorough computerized graphological analysis, which would go beyond the scope of the present study.

Nevertheless, the following tentative conclusions can be made. In the first collection containing intabulations, the Diletto spirituale, the intabulations seem to have been added as an afterthought, and purchasers could order prints with or without them. The same could be true for the Ghirlanda di fioretti musicali. Although no copies lacking intabulations are extant, they might have existed at one stage, for as in the Diletto spirituale, the voice parts and intabulations of each piece appear on separate pages, although the texts for the second to fourth verses appear on the same pages as the intabulations.

It appears that the voice and the instrumental parts were not necessarily written by the same person, or at the same time. The intabulations, especially those for lute, contain more mistakes than the nearly perfect voice parts. In the next two collections containing intabulations, these instrumental parts were no longer an optional part of the print. Nevertheless, the voices, the additional strophes, the keyboard intabulation and the lute intabulation were probably designed and engraved separately. This sometimes led to overlapping text and music.

By contrast, in the Lodi there are no overlapping fields, and the layout is more homogeneous. Here all the writing and layout were apparently done by a single person. In any case the prints show a level of perfection and precision that would probably have appealed to well-known composers like Merulo and Luzzaschi, who turned to Verovio in Rome for the publication of music including intabulations, even though they had already published much in Venice, the capital of music printing. Was the musically literate Verovio also capable of transferring the music into keyboard and lute intavolature?

These intabulations, idiomatic and well adapted to the target instruments, were clearly done by someone who could play these instruments. Neither the keyboard nor the lute tablatures are exceedingly difficult, but they do require a good proficiency. Some are particularly refined, whereas others just reflect the voice parts more literally. A further discussion of the intabulations will be reserved for later chapters. Differences can also be observed in the notation of the keyboard parts.

Whereas all keyboard intabulations in the Diletto spirituale are notated on systems comprising two staves of seven lines, most pieces in the Ghirlanda have systems of two staves of five lines, though six pieces in which the individual voices have greater ranges are notated on systems comprising two staves of seven lines each.

In the latter two anthologies, the scribe used custom-made solutions for individual pieces. The presence or absence of chiavi trasportati high clefs does not seem to affect the notation of the keyboard parts, as the distribution of the parts over the hands depends on the distance from the bass, the overall range and the quantity of diminutions rather than on the progression of the voice.

The only exceptions appear in the Gagliarde by Giovanni Francesco Anerio. Here the harpsichord part is notated in a system of two staves of five lines, but like a modern keyboard score, the notation does not always indicate the distribution of the notes to each hand. Thus the scribe seems to have prioritized the avoidance of ledger lines over the distribution of the notes in the hands.

This is highly unusual in Italian printed keyboard music of the time. It would be peculiar to perform the Madrigali without the harpsichord part, as the pieces would then lack the bass. This suggests the intabulator handed over a copy of his intabulation to a copyist, who subsequently prepared the Stichvorlage for the engraver. A similar process was used as in the graphic arts, where the designatore would adapt the work of an artist, which would then be transferred to the plate by an engraver. But as there are so many different hands, it may be that several roles were carried out by a single person, as in earlier graphic art and map making.

This suggests that he was perhaps involved in intabulating these compositions, certainly for the harpsichord, and perhaps also for the lute. In the same year as the copies of the Ghirlanda are dated, Felice Anerio undertook other activities in music editing, as compiler of the madrigal collection Le Gioie. Of course, if the plates for the canzonettas were created individually at different times, it could be that some composers, such as Anerio, submitted their compositions complete with intabulations, whereas Verovio or his consortium had to find somebody to do the other intabulations.

The identity of those responsible for the more straightforward intabulations will probably remain an enigma. Although many details about Simone Verovio have been discovered, much has come to light only as a by-product of other research. Further systematic research into the life of Verovio and his family still needs to be done in Roman archives. The dedicatees of his collections are largely members of the extended Lorraine and Bavarian nobility.

Apart from Vincenzo Gonzaga, these were not known as great musical patrons in Roman or broader Italian circles. Most were either well integrated in Roman musical life or compatriots of Verovio. Many had close ties to the Jesuits and the Oratorians. It seems that Verovio was responsible for compiling the collections and asking the individual composers to contribute compositions. He functioned as editore, organizing the finances for many of the prints, and was probably the original owner of many of the plates. For the most part, the engravers and pressmen will probably always remain anonymous, but this is quite usual for this time.

Verovio was also responsible for writing some of the music and texts, but others probably participated actively. Their identities are difficult to establish. The intabulators will similarly probably remain unknown, but it is striking that the compositions by Felice Anerio contain some of the most refined intabulations, while the work of no other composer is treated in such a consistently distinct manner.

Simone Verovio evidently played a major role in producing and publishing most of the publications associated with his name. He probably began as member of a consortium including his compatriots Peetrino, van Buyten and perhaps van Aelst, that published writing-book prints and loose collections of Canzonette perhaps also sold individually using intaglio-printing techniques.

Such collaborations were very common in printing figurative art and maps. He professionalized the manufacturing process to create predefined entities containing compositions longer than a page. In their construction, these later collections more closely resembled collections printed using relief techniques, with the added advantage of rendering certain elements impossible to print from type.

Copies bound in book form can be found in important European and American collections. Several are available in facsimile or online. Several academic articles and books, mainly on music, refer to the Verovio prints. Theses have also been published about aspects of his prints, usually concentrating on one or more collections of the canzonettas. Their copies are often found in the libraries in which these pioneers worked, in cities like Bologna, Munich, Berlin, and Brussels. Some of these copies bear the stamps of other libraries in which they were held earlier, such as the Collegio Germanico in Rome or the monasteries of St.

Salvator in Pollingen and Tegernsee. Antonio Balestri in the back of his own copy in ink. Unfortunately, extant catalogues from libraries and booksellers around only rarely mention Verovio prints. None of the catalogues of music printers and booksellers from to published by Barbieri — not even Gaspare Ruspa, a bookseller in S. In an inventory was made of the possessions belonging to the famous Venetian music printer Angelo Gardano — Amongst his very small collection of seven books is a copy of the Diletto spirituale. It is not known whether this copy contained the intabulations.

We are fortunate to possess catalogues of books for sale in the shops of two famous music printers at Venice, Gardano and Vincenti, from until the end of the seventeenth century. However, these do not list any prints associated with Verovio until and , when the two books of Toccate by Merulo in rame in copper were listed at 18 Venetian lire, making them one of the most expensive prints on offer. Only the set of nine books of madrigals by Marenzio 27 lire and the twelve books of masses by Palestrina 48 lire and masses by Ganassi 28 lire are listed as significantly more expensive.

Also listed we find the Arie divote a voce sola by Durante nr. Of course these entries could refer to other, unknown, collections. In Rome around , newer music seems to have been sold in bookshops, but no mention of Verovio prints can be found. See Barbieri a. In Naples the Jesuit Tarquinio Longo published a collection in called Lodi e canzonette spirituali, which included several pieces from the Diletto spirituale, Ghirlanda and Devoto pianto.

Gardano in the del Mel collection of Madrigaletti spirituali a tre voci … Libro quarto in For example, in Augsburg, where Werdenstein had owned a copy of the Jubilo di San Bernardo by Peetrino, Bernhard Klingenstein included two compositions from that collection in his anthology Triodia sacra It is legimate to ask whether the primary function of a publication is practical or representational. While it is easy to sing or play from the publications printed in partbook layout, the situation for the publications in choirbook layout or score is less clear.

Mentre laquila sta mirando il sole - Score

Although the music in these prints is not as small as in the Sadeler Motettenbilder, it is impossible to imagine three singers, a lute player and harpsichordist — or even just a harpsichordist — all reading from the same score. Many choirbooks used in church, both extant books and those depicted in the visual arts, are about twice the size of the Verovio prints. For more information see Bernstein , p. Some prints apparently had more of a Filippi , p. See chapter 3. The secular music could have been used in domestic surroundings, but also as recreation in more sacred settings.

Collections containing canzonette spirituali were printed from moveable type for practical use, and were purchased as performance materials by monasteries, colleges and seminaries. And even if it [this book] should not be useful to others, it will at least serve our private evening Oratory, and on feast days during the warmest part of the summer, for the public [Oratory] at St. Wind instruments and organs participated in the music sung in processions. Lira, harp, gravicembalo harpsichord as well as See also Schmidt These programs and their stakeholders used music to enhance and form the spiritual life of the people.

Music could help children or adults to memorize texts. But music had more than an educational and pastoral function. It was also capable of inviting, awakening and purifying the spirit by exciting the senses, thus bringing humans closer to God. By delighting dilettare the soul, music allowed the text, the most important element, to penetrate and move the soul more easily. Delighting in music was not purely an aesthetic experience, but a devout practice, a true diletto spirituale.

This made music a powerful tool in religious instruction. Christian doctrine classes were initiated throughout Italy. Here those who did not understand Latin received religious instruction in the vernacular. Initially these classes were only for children, but later adults also participated. Before classes in doctrine, children would go out into the streets singing laude. Music was also used in conjunction with the study of catechism and sung on occasions such as the disputa and the dialoghetto, and in intermedi. This order, charged with an evangelising mission, was the first to empha Fiore , pp.

Filippi , p. Maria della Rotonda the Pantheon. The Compagnia chose SS. Music played an important role in the gatherings of these groups. It is particularly so, if I am not mistaken, when voices are joined with instrument that they produce such assistance to devotion. Surviving inventories of households indicate that lutes and especially keyboard instruments were most popular, but viols, lire da braccio and wind instruments were also fa Schuler , p. As is frequently the case in engraved illustrations, the design was not made in reverse, thus the result is in mirror image.

Although it was considered important to show Jesus blessing with this right hand, the direction was not considered crucial otherwise in figurative art. With maps, music and text, this was obviously not the case. Evidence of payments for the regular maintenance and repair of instruments are fairly common. Records of the hiring of musicians for weddings, banquets and other special occasion survive, and in recent years considerable research has been done into the patronage of music by the high aristocracy.

The harpsichordist and one of the singers are reading from partbooks, in the standard oblong format. The others seem to be playing from memory or improvising. A similar constellation can be found in several paintings, for example Il Concerto familiare by Leandro Dal Ponte called Leandro Bassano — , found today in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Fiore has identified some arrangements of canzonette spirituali by Quagliati intabulated in this way in I-Fn Magl. It was probably used in the convent in Bologna, where Malvezzi was prioress.

Many of these include both secular and sacred texts, and seem to be destined for private domestic use. Thus iconographical evidence shows that a mixed groups of performers sang or played music such as canzonettas from partbooks in a domestic setting. The intabulations mentioned above show that a lutenist or keyboard player could also have played such music, either singing the text simultaneously, or accompanying one or more singers. Who could have participated in the performance?

In Gary Anderson calculated that the three-part canzonettas in the prints associated with Verovio can be performed in twenty-two possible combinations of voices and instruments, from from solo voice or solo instrument to three voices with harpsichord and lute. Anderson dismissed six of these possibilities, including both harpsichord and lute, as unfeasible, citing some clashes between the parts. Modern edition in Slim — Keyboard instruments were generally tuned in meantone, but fretted instruments in equal temperament.

As will be discussed in chapter 10, from the way some of the canzonettas are intabulated, it can be inferred that this combination was possible, and even intentional, at least for these pieces. It can thus be inferred that this combination was also possible for all the Canzonette prints associated with Verovio. In the second half of the sixteenth century, it was not unusual to perform polyphonic music with a single voice to an instrument.

Three-voice villanelle alla napolitana were usually performed by one singer accompanying himself on an instrument, usually the lute. At the Ferrara court, Luzzaschi accompanied the ladies of the Concerto delle dame on the harpsichord in s, in various combinations, including solos. But also at Florence, Vincenzo Galilei sang the bass part of well-known part-songs while accompanying himself with a lute reduction on the lute. Playing colla parte was standard performance practice at the time, whether in domestic surroundings, churches or oratories.

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Except in nunneries, church music was executed and composed mainly by men. The term pseudo monody was first used by Einstein see for example Einstein , p. Palisca, basing himself on Einstein, describes pseudo-monodies as polyphonic compositions performed for solo voice with an instrument playing a reduction of the parts. Other authors describe the same phenomenon as proto-monody see for example Fabris , pp. This practice is also described by Galilei , pp. For further information see chapter 8. The individual villanelle in this collection were dedicated to ladies and noblewomen whom Venturi claims to have known personally, or at least by reputation.

The laude and canzonette spirituali played an important devotional role before and after the extra-liturgical activities in churches and oratories, sometimes even during the liturgy. As Ancina mentioned in his preface, this music was also used in monasteries and convents. But secular music was also considered a vehicle for the promotion of the true faith, as experiencing beauty was associated with the experience of the divine. According to the title, the See for example Harness on the situation in Florence and Bizzarini , pp. The music, in the prints associated with Verovio, adheres to post-Tridentine principles such as clarity, simplicity and comprehensibility, in order to move the senses of those addressed and excite their spirit to devotion.

First we shall explore what intabulations are, and how they differ from what would be played on a bass. In no basso continuo part had yet been printed. However, did the performance practices employed by musians when they played together really depend on the notation in front of them? All can be found in many of the intabulations connected to Verovio, as we shall discuss in later chapters. Furthermore, we can find there traces of practices normally associated with later periods. The superimposition of tonic and dominant sounds in accompaniment, a suspension sounding at the same time as its resolution, for example, is usually associated with seventeenth century guitar techniques, or with acciaccature in the second half of the seventeenth and the eight century.

The writing-out of accompaniments together with all the other parts was new in the second half of the sixteenth-century. In Italy, the first editions of polyphonic vocal pieces for three voices with accompaniments in lute tablature were printed from moveable type in the s, in choirbook layout as well as in score.

See also Dragosits , pp. See also Dragosits , p. As seen in chapter 1, the printing of keyboard intabulations with moveable type was an exceedingly complex matter requiring a large amount of type. Moroever, the market of people that could read and use such editions was probably relatively small. Until the appearance of the Verovio prints, only ten publications of keyboard intabulations had been printed in Italy, all in relief print, nine employing moveable type and one woodcut.

By contrast, the use of intaglio techniques allowed for the printing of individual voice parts, together with lute tablature and keyboard intavolatura notation, with all parts displayed together on a single opening. Thus the prints associated with Verovio provide an important written record of performance practices around The canzonetta prints in choirbook layout allow us to compare the vocal parts with the intabulations for lute and keyboard.


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As argued above in chapter 6. Whereas lute intabulations that could be used to accompany voices have been the subject of several research projects, keyboard intabulations are relatively neglected. See chapter 8. Judd , p. These parts usually lacked any clear indication of the intended performing forces. This left performers free to adapt the performing forces according to the circumstances. It also allowed printers to cater to the largest possible market. Consumers could adapt these printed parts according to their wishes, necessities and capabilities.

This could be done either solo, alone, or in concerto, in a consort. The result of such adaptations could be notated as an intabulation. But not only vocal compositions were intabulated. Dances and other instrumental genres like toccate and According to Brown , p. It therefore seems that an intavolatura intabulation is any piece written in a tablature.

The situation in Italy, however, is more complex than elsewhere. The intavolatura di liuto is a normal tablature which indicates exactly which string is to be plucked, the exact position of the left hand on the neck of the instrument. Only the rhythmic value of the fastest moving part is given above the system, thus expressing the vertical aspect of sound rather than the linear part-writing.

The intabulator had to adapt the part-writing, as it is not always technically possible to play all the voices exactly as in the original. When playing from an intavolatura di liuto, the original voice-parts need to be deduced, but this was standard procedure for a competent lute player, as Vincenzo Galilei attests. Tagliavini has shown that in the first half of the sixteenth century it is already common to find chordal hand positions, where chords are not just the result of the simultaneous sounding of the original parts, but are independent entities, often fuller than the original parts.

But this nota system cannot show everything. For example, it cannot indicate the crossing of parts, so the progression of the individual voices can become obscured. Added notes are never marked specifically. Chords outside the reach of both hands and diminutions sometimes require voices to be transposed up or down an octave. Like lutenists, Diruta specifically mentions the masses, recercari, toccate and canzon alla francese by Claudio Merulo as excellent examples of ornamented intabulations.

This system is different from the normal Spanish keyboard tablature notation in the sixteenth century. It can mean an arrangement of vocal and instrumental pieces for lute and harpsichord. It can also indicate the purely instrumental genre of the toccata. This ambiguous usage thus illustrates the fact that in Italy an intabulation is any piece written in an intavolatura. Intabulations were not the only method of notating polyphonic music for perfect instruments. The word partitura or spartito is used not only for an open score, as Brown implies, but also for single bass lines with lines dividing the staff into metrical units.

The player needed to adapt the music for a specific perfect instrument, as typical instrumental features remain undefined, such as the assignment of particular notes to a particular hand on a keyboard instrument, or which string and fret are to be played on a plucked instrument. In accompanimental short scores the inner parts were sometimes indicated by figures or by notes to avoid Silbiger See Kinkeldey , Lowinsky and Judd Regardless whether the top part was doubled, adaptations for individual instruments would still be required.

The movement of the other voices was not necessarily identical with that of the original parts, but followed normal voice-leading and the rules of counterpoint and theory. The player still needed to adapt the music to the specific instrument. But Banchieri, for example, even used the simple bass-line notation as the foundation for a solo organ performance in church, as a precursor of partimento basses. As mentioned in chapter 1, modern scholars and performers frequently assume that the Verovio prints and the intabulations were used mainly by amateurs.

Kinkeldey argued that professionals would have been able to read all separate parts at the same time, thus rendering intabulations superfluous. Mason, however, shows that the intabulations from the Verovio prints and the Kapsperger intabulations are consistent with the tradition of sixteenth-century lute accompaniments, and seem to represent common practice around Some of the intabulations are mainly literal, but the care with which some of the earlier harpsichord intabulations were made as shown in chapter 6 as well as the use of three different kinds of lute intabulations suggests that Verovio was attempting to notate actual practice.

Why should we assume that such a practice is farther away from normal playing conventions than the Toccate of Merulo or Frescobaldi? Could it be that they do not fit into what we think the musicians should have played? This does not imply that all the intabulations were always played exactly as written. A less able player can leave out ornaments or added notes, whereas a proficient player might add more, just like a good singer could add, leave out or change ornaments.

The level of proficiency needed to play the Verovio intabulations differs. Some are quite simple, while others require a good proficiency. The same can be said for the vocal parts. Many are quite straightforward but others have more complicated vocal Dragosits , p. In this chapter, we shall examine the types of in concerto intabulations, corresponding to different ways of playing together, that are found in prints associated with Verovio.

Furthermore, we shall compare these types of intabulations to what treatises and other sources from the second half of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century state about how musicians were to play these different methods of intabulation, in other words, how to put music into the intavolatura, and what kinds of adaptations were standard and necessary. However, the Verovio prints present two fundamentally different types of intabulations for the harpsichord.

In the canzonetta intabulations, the voice parts are doubled and then adapted to the instrument by adding ornaments and extra voices. Such extra voices might be complete or nearly complete , or simply notes added in one or two places, usually at cadences. Quagliati a Table 5. Riepe , p. Felice Anerio c. He was one of the most established composers in Rome at the time.

Three of the collections exist in different versions, containing either a changed order or fewer pieces. Nanino G. Nanino 1 Lodi della G. Nanino 4 musica Table 5. This suggests that they had a special relationship with Verovio. As mentioned before, information recorded in different states of the plates of the title page of a given collection is not always identical. Martin van Buyten or van Buijten fl.

Many writing masters sought him out to engrave their writing-books and broadsides. In the other seven copies, Martin van Buyten is no longer mentioned, and we encounter the description raccolte da Simone Verovio. Intagliate et stampate dal medesimo collected by Simone Verovio, engraved and printed by the same.

It seems likely that Simone Verovio compiled this collection and was responsible for writing the title page, dedication and the pages with the voice parts. It is plausible that Martin van Buyten engraved these and perhaps even designed the decorations of the frontispiece. Why then do most of the later copies state that Verovio engraved and printed them?

And why is the name Martin van Buyten removed from the title plate? Several possible scenarios could explain these discrepancies. Perhaps Verovio engraved the added plates with the intabulations, whereas van Buyten was responsible for the original plates, containing the voice parts, title page and dedication.

The hypothesis that van Buyten exclusively engraved the frontispiece of the Diletto spirituale is rendered less likely by the fact that his name appears as the engraver, and Verovio solely as writer, just as on the title page of the Melodie spirituali by Peetrino This shows that van Buyten was probably responsible for engraving the music too. Fiore also proposes that Verovio fell out with van Buyten and virtually eliminated his name, taking the credit for the engraving himself. Just as in the Diletto spirituale, Simone Verovio claims to have compiled raccolte all the anthologies apart from the Devoto pianto.

He is not indicated as compiler in all states of the title pages of the other collections. Born at Nancy in Lorraine, probably in , Blancus was active in Rome from — To summarize, Verovio seems to have written personally large sections of the prints associated with his name, while others, perhaps Blancus, were probably also involved. Identifying the different writers involved in the preparation of the prints more definitely would require a thorough computerized graphological analysis, which would go beyond the scope of the present study.

Nevertheless, the following tentative conclusions can be made. In the first collection containing intabulations, the Diletto spirituale, the intabulations seem to have been added as an afterthought, and purchasers could order prints with or without them. The same could be true for the Ghirlanda di fioretti musicali. Although no copies lacking intabulations are extant, they might have existed at one stage, for as in the Diletto spirituale, the voice parts and intabulations of each piece appear on separate pages, although the texts for the second to fourth verses appear on the same pages as the intabulations.

It appears that the voice and the instrumental parts were not necessarily written by the same person, or at the same time. The intabulations, especially those for lute, contain more mistakes than the nearly perfect voice parts. In the next two collections containing intabulations, these instrumental parts were no longer an optional part of the print. Nevertheless, the voices, the additional strophes, the keyboard intabulation and the lute intabulation were probably designed and engraved separately. This sometimes led to overlapping text and music.

By contrast, in the Lodi there are no overlapping fields, and the layout is more homogeneous. Here all the writing and layout were apparently done by a single person. In any case the prints show a level of perfection and precision that would probably have appealed to well-known composers like Merulo and Luzzaschi, who turned to Verovio in Rome for the publication of music including intabulations, even though they had already published much in Venice, the capital of music printing. Was the musically literate Verovio also capable of transferring the music into keyboard and lute intavolature?

These intabulations, idiomatic and well adapted to the target instruments, were clearly done by someone who could play these instruments.


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Neither the keyboard nor the lute tablatures are exceedingly difficult, but they do require a good proficiency. Some are particularly refined, whereas others just reflect the voice parts more literally. A further discussion of the intabulations will be reserved for later chapters. Differences can also be observed in the notation of the keyboard parts. Whereas all keyboard intabulations in the Diletto spirituale are notated on systems comprising two staves of seven lines, most pieces in the Ghirlanda have systems of two staves of five lines, though six pieces in which the individual voices have greater ranges are notated on systems comprising two staves of seven lines each.

In the latter two anthologies, the scribe used custom-made solutions for individual pieces. The presence or absence of chiavi trasportati high clefs does not seem to affect the notation of the keyboard parts, as the distribution of the parts over the hands depends on the distance from the bass, the overall range and the quantity of diminutions rather than on the progression of the voice. The only exceptions appear in the Gagliarde by Giovanni Francesco Anerio. Here the harpsichord part is notated in a system of two staves of five lines, but like a modern keyboard score, the notation does not always indicate the distribution of the notes to each hand.

Thus the scribe seems to have prioritized the avoidance of ledger lines over the distribution of the notes in the hands. This is highly unusual in Italian printed keyboard music of the time.

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It would be peculiar to perform the Madrigali without the harpsichord part, as the pieces would then lack the bass. This suggests the intabulator handed over a copy of his intabulation to a copyist, who subsequently prepared the Stichvorlage for the engraver. A similar process was used as in the graphic arts, where the designatore would adapt the work of an artist, which would then be transferred to the plate by an engraver.

But as there are so many different hands, it may be that several roles were carried out by a single person, as in earlier graphic art and map making. This suggests that he was perhaps involved in intabulating these compositions, certainly for the harpsichord, and perhaps also for the lute. In the same year as the copies of the Ghirlanda are dated, Felice Anerio undertook other activities in music editing, as compiler of the madrigal collection Le Gioie. Of course, if the plates for the canzonettas were created individually at different times, it could be that some composers, such as Anerio, submitted their compositions complete with intabulations, whereas Verovio or his consortium had to find somebody to do the other intabulations.

The identity of those responsible for the more straightforward intabulations will probably remain an enigma. Although many details about Simone Verovio have been discovered, much has come to light only as a by-product of other research. Further systematic research into the life of Verovio and his family still needs to be done in Roman archives. The dedicatees of his collections are largely members of the extended Lorraine and Bavarian nobility. Apart from Vincenzo Gonzaga, these were not known as great musical patrons in Roman or broader Italian circles.

Most were either well integrated in Roman musical life or compatriots of Verovio. Many had close ties to the Jesuits and the Oratorians. It seems that Verovio was responsible for compiling the collections and asking the individual composers to contribute compositions. He functioned as editore, organizing the finances for many of the prints, and was probably the original owner of many of the plates. For the most part, the engravers and pressmen will probably always remain anonymous, but this is quite usual for this time. Verovio was also responsible for writing some of the music and texts, but others probably participated actively.

Their identities are difficult to establish. The intabulators will similarly probably remain unknown, but it is striking that the compositions by Felice Anerio contain some of the most refined intabulations, while the work of no other composer is treated in such a consistently distinct manner. Simone Verovio evidently played a major role in producing and publishing most of the publications associated with his name. He probably began as member of a consortium including his compatriots Peetrino, van Buyten and perhaps van Aelst, that published writing-book prints and loose collections of Canzonette perhaps also sold individually using intaglio-printing techniques.

Such collaborations were very common in printing figurative art and maps. He professionalized the manufacturing process to create predefined entities containing compositions longer than a page. In their construction, these later collections more closely resembled collections printed using relief techniques, with the added advantage of rendering certain elements impossible to print from type. Copies bound in book form can be found in important European and American collections. Several are available in facsimile or online. Several academic articles and books, mainly on music, refer to the Verovio prints.

Theses have also been published about aspects of his prints, usually concentrating on one or more collections of the canzonettas. Their copies are often found in the libraries in which these pioneers worked, in cities like Bologna, Munich, Berlin, and Brussels. Some of these copies bear the stamps of other libraries in which they were held earlier, such as the Collegio Germanico in Rome or the monasteries of St. Salvator in Pollingen and Tegernsee. Antonio Balestri in the back of his own copy in ink. Unfortunately, extant catalogues from libraries and booksellers around only rarely mention Verovio prints.

None of the catalogues of music printers and booksellers from to published by Barbieri — not even Gaspare Ruspa, a bookseller in S. In an inventory was made of the possessions belonging to the famous Venetian music printer Angelo Gardano — Amongst his very small collection of seven books is a copy of the Diletto spirituale.

It is not known whether this copy contained the intabulations. We are fortunate to possess catalogues of books for sale in the shops of two famous music printers at Venice, Gardano and Vincenti, from until the end of the seventeenth century. However, these do not list any prints associated with Verovio until and , when the two books of Toccate by Merulo in rame in copper were listed at 18 Venetian lire, making them one of the most expensive prints on offer.

Only the set of nine books of madrigals by Marenzio 27 lire and the twelve books of masses by Palestrina 48 lire and masses by Ganassi 28 lire are listed as significantly more expensive. Also listed we find the Arie divote a voce sola by Durante nr. Of course these entries could refer to other, unknown, collections. In Rome around , newer music seems to have been sold in bookshops, but no mention of Verovio prints can be found.

See Barbieri a. In Naples the Jesuit Tarquinio Longo published a collection in called Lodi e canzonette spirituali, which included several pieces from the Diletto spirituale, Ghirlanda and Devoto pianto. Gardano in the del Mel collection of Madrigaletti spirituali a tre voci … Libro quarto in For example, in Augsburg, where Werdenstein had owned a copy of the Jubilo di San Bernardo by Peetrino, Bernhard Klingenstein included two compositions from that collection in his anthology Triodia sacra It is legimate to ask whether the primary function of a publication is practical or representational.

While it is easy to sing or play from the publications printed in partbook layout, the situation for the publications in choirbook layout or score is less clear. Although the music in these prints is not as small as in the Sadeler Motettenbilder, it is impossible to imagine three singers, a lute player and harpsichordist — or even just a harpsichordist — all reading from the same score. Many choirbooks used in church, both extant books and those depicted in the visual arts, are about twice the size of the Verovio prints. For more information see Bernstein , p. Some prints apparently had more of a Filippi , p.

See chapter 3. The secular music could have been used in domestic surroundings, but also as recreation in more sacred settings. Collections containing canzonette spirituali were printed from moveable type for practical use, and were purchased as performance materials by monasteries, colleges and seminaries. And even if it [this book] should not be useful to others, it will at least serve our private evening Oratory, and on feast days during the warmest part of the summer, for the public [Oratory] at St.

Wind instruments and organs participated in the music sung in processions. Lira, harp, gravicembalo harpsichord as well as See also Schmidt These programs and their stakeholders used music to enhance and form the spiritual life of the people. Music could help children or adults to memorize texts. But music had more than an educational and pastoral function.

It was also capable of inviting, awakening and purifying the spirit by exciting the senses, thus bringing humans closer to God. By delighting dilettare the soul, music allowed the text, the most important element, to penetrate and move the soul more easily. Delighting in music was not purely an aesthetic experience, but a devout practice, a true diletto spirituale. This made music a powerful tool in religious instruction. Christian doctrine classes were initiated throughout Italy. Here those who did not understand Latin received religious instruction in the vernacular.

Initially these classes were only for children, but later adults also participated. Before classes in doctrine, children would go out into the streets singing laude. Music was also used in conjunction with the study of catechism and sung on occasions such as the disputa and the dialoghetto, and in intermedi. This order, charged with an evangelising mission, was the first to empha Fiore , pp.

Filippi , p. Maria della Rotonda the Pantheon. The Compagnia chose SS. Music played an important role in the gatherings of these groups. It is particularly so, if I am not mistaken, when voices are joined with instrument that they produce such assistance to devotion. Surviving inventories of households indicate that lutes and especially keyboard instruments were most popular, but viols, lire da braccio and wind instruments were also fa Schuler , p. As is frequently the case in engraved illustrations, the design was not made in reverse, thus the result is in mirror image.

Although it was considered important to show Jesus blessing with this right hand, the direction was not considered crucial otherwise in figurative art. With maps, music and text, this was obviously not the case. Evidence of payments for the regular maintenance and repair of instruments are fairly common. Records of the hiring of musicians for weddings, banquets and other special occasion survive, and in recent years considerable research has been done into the patronage of music by the high aristocracy. The harpsichordist and one of the singers are reading from partbooks, in the standard oblong format.

The others seem to be playing from memory or improvising. A similar constellation can be found in several paintings, for example Il Concerto familiare by Leandro Dal Ponte called Leandro Bassano — , found today in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Fiore has identified some arrangements of canzonette spirituali by Quagliati intabulated in this way in I-Fn Magl.

It was probably used in the convent in Bologna, where Malvezzi was prioress. Many of these include both secular and sacred texts, and seem to be destined for private domestic use. Thus iconographical evidence shows that a mixed groups of performers sang or played music such as canzonettas from partbooks in a domestic setting.

The intabulations mentioned above show that a lutenist or keyboard player could also have played such music, either singing the text simultaneously, or accompanying one or more singers. Who could have participated in the performance? In Gary Anderson calculated that the three-part canzonettas in the prints associated with Verovio can be performed in twenty-two possible combinations of voices and instruments, from from solo voice or solo instrument to three voices with harpsichord and lute.

Anderson dismissed six of these possibilities, including both harpsichord and lute, as unfeasible, citing some clashes between the parts. Modern edition in Slim — Keyboard instruments were generally tuned in meantone, but fretted instruments in equal temperament. As will be discussed in chapter 10, from the way some of the canzonettas are intabulated, it can be inferred that this combination was possible, and even intentional, at least for these pieces. It can thus be inferred that this combination was also possible for all the Canzonette prints associated with Verovio.

In the second half of the sixteenth century, it was not unusual to perform polyphonic music with a single voice to an instrument. Three-voice villanelle alla napolitana were usually performed by one singer accompanying himself on an instrument, usually the lute. At the Ferrara court, Luzzaschi accompanied the ladies of the Concerto delle dame on the harpsichord in s, in various combinations, including solos.

But also at Florence, Vincenzo Galilei sang the bass part of well-known part-songs while accompanying himself with a lute reduction on the lute. Playing colla parte was standard performance practice at the time, whether in domestic surroundings, churches or oratories. Except in nunneries, church music was executed and composed mainly by men. The term pseudo monody was first used by Einstein see for example Einstein , p.

Palisca, basing himself on Einstein, describes pseudo-monodies as polyphonic compositions performed for solo voice with an instrument playing a reduction of the parts. Other authors describe the same phenomenon as proto-monody see for example Fabris , pp. This practice is also described by Galilei , pp.

For further information see chapter 8. The individual villanelle in this collection were dedicated to ladies and noblewomen whom Venturi claims to have known personally, or at least by reputation. The laude and canzonette spirituali played an important devotional role before and after the extra-liturgical activities in churches and oratories, sometimes even during the liturgy. As Ancina mentioned in his preface, this music was also used in monasteries and convents. But secular music was also considered a vehicle for the promotion of the true faith, as experiencing beauty was associated with the experience of the divine.

According to the title, the See for example Harness on the situation in Florence and Bizzarini , pp. The music, in the prints associated with Verovio, adheres to post-Tridentine principles such as clarity, simplicity and comprehensibility, in order to move the senses of those addressed and excite their spirit to devotion. First we shall explore what intabulations are, and how they differ from what would be played on a bass.

In no basso continuo part had yet been printed. However, did the performance practices employed by musians when they played together really depend on the notation in front of them? All can be found in many of the intabulations connected to Verovio, as we shall discuss in later chapters. Furthermore, we can find there traces of practices normally associated with later periods. The superimposition of tonic and dominant sounds in accompaniment, a suspension sounding at the same time as its resolution, for example, is usually associated with seventeenth century guitar techniques, or with acciaccature in the second half of the seventeenth and the eight century.

The writing-out of accompaniments together with all the other parts was new in the second half of the sixteenth-century. In Italy, the first editions of polyphonic vocal pieces for three voices with accompaniments in lute tablature were printed from moveable type in the s, in choirbook layout as well as in score. See also Dragosits , pp. See also Dragosits , p. As seen in chapter 1, the printing of keyboard intabulations with moveable type was an exceedingly complex matter requiring a large amount of type. Moroever, the market of people that could read and use such editions was probably relatively small.

Until the appearance of the Verovio prints, only ten publications of keyboard intabulations had been printed in Italy, all in relief print, nine employing moveable type and one woodcut. By contrast, the use of intaglio techniques allowed for the printing of individual voice parts, together with lute tablature and keyboard intavolatura notation, with all parts displayed together on a single opening. Thus the prints associated with Verovio provide an important written record of performance practices around The canzonetta prints in choirbook layout allow us to compare the vocal parts with the intabulations for lute and keyboard.

As argued above in chapter 6. Whereas lute intabulations that could be used to accompany voices have been the subject of several research projects, keyboard intabulations are relatively neglected. See chapter 8. Judd , p. These parts usually lacked any clear indication of the intended performing forces. This left performers free to adapt the performing forces according to the circumstances. It also allowed printers to cater to the largest possible market. Consumers could adapt these printed parts according to their wishes, necessities and capabilities.

This could be done either solo, alone, or in concerto, in a consort. The result of such adaptations could be notated as an intabulation. But not only vocal compositions were intabulated. Dances and other instrumental genres like toccate and According to Brown , p. It therefore seems that an intavolatura intabulation is any piece written in a tablature. The situation in Italy, however, is more complex than elsewhere. The intavolatura di liuto is a normal tablature which indicates exactly which string is to be plucked, the exact position of the left hand on the neck of the instrument.

Only the rhythmic value of the fastest moving part is given above the system, thus expressing the vertical aspect of sound rather than the linear part-writing. The intabulator had to adapt the part-writing, as it is not always technically possible to play all the voices exactly as in the original.


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  • When playing from an intavolatura di liuto, the original voice-parts need to be deduced, but this was standard procedure for a competent lute player, as Vincenzo Galilei attests. Tagliavini has shown that in the first half of the sixteenth century it is already common to find chordal hand positions, where chords are not just the result of the simultaneous sounding of the original parts, but are independent entities, often fuller than the original parts. But this nota system cannot show everything. For example, it cannot indicate the crossing of parts, so the progression of the individual voices can become obscured.

    Added notes are never marked specifically. Chords outside the reach of both hands and diminutions sometimes require voices to be transposed up or down an octave. Like lutenists, Diruta specifically mentions the masses, recercari, toccate and canzon alla francese by Claudio Merulo as excellent examples of ornamented intabulations.

    This system is different from the normal Spanish keyboard tablature notation in the sixteenth century. It can mean an arrangement of vocal and instrumental pieces for lute and harpsichord. It can also indicate the purely instrumental genre of the toccata.

    This ambiguous usage thus illustrates the fact that in Italy an intabulation is any piece written in an intavolatura. Intabulations were not the only method of notating polyphonic music for perfect instruments. The word partitura or spartito is used not only for an open score, as Brown implies, but also for single bass lines with lines dividing the staff into metrical units. The player needed to adapt the music for a specific perfect instrument, as typical instrumental features remain undefined, such as the assignment of particular notes to a particular hand on a keyboard instrument, or which string and fret are to be played on a plucked instrument.

    In accompanimental short scores the inner parts were sometimes indicated by figures or by notes to avoid Silbiger See Kinkeldey , Lowinsky and Judd Regardless whether the top part was doubled, adaptations for individual instruments would still be required.

    The movement of the other voices was not necessarily identical with that of the original parts, but followed normal voice-leading and the rules of counterpoint and theory. The player still needed to adapt the music to the specific instrument. But Banchieri, for example, even used the simple bass-line notation as the foundation for a solo organ performance in church, as a precursor of partimento basses. As mentioned in chapter 1, modern scholars and performers frequently assume that the Verovio prints and the intabulations were used mainly by amateurs.

    Kinkeldey argued that professionals would have been able to read all separate parts at the same time, thus rendering intabulations superfluous. Mason, however, shows that the intabulations from the Verovio prints and the Kapsperger intabulations are consistent with the tradition of sixteenth-century lute accompaniments, and seem to represent common practice around Some of the intabulations are mainly literal, but the care with which some of the earlier harpsichord intabulations were made as shown in chapter 6 as well as the use of three different kinds of lute intabulations suggests that Verovio was attempting to notate actual practice.

    Why should we assume that such a practice is farther away from normal playing conventions than the Toccate of Merulo or Frescobaldi? Could it be that they do not fit into what we think the musicians should have played? This does not imply that all the intabulations were always played exactly as written. A less able player can leave out ornaments or added notes, whereas a proficient player might add more, just like a good singer could add, leave out or change ornaments.

    The level of proficiency needed to play the Verovio intabulations differs. Some are quite simple, while others require a good proficiency. The same can be said for the vocal parts. Many are quite straightforward but others have more complicated vocal Dragosits , p. In this chapter, we shall examine the types of in concerto intabulations, corresponding to different ways of playing together, that are found in prints associated with Verovio.

    Furthermore, we shall compare these types of intabulations to what treatises and other sources from the second half of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century state about how musicians were to play these different methods of intabulation, in other words, how to put music into the intavolatura, and what kinds of adaptations were standard and necessary.

    However, the Verovio prints present two fundamentally different types of intabulations for the harpsichord. In the canzonetta intabulations, the voice parts are doubled and then adapted to the instrument by adding ornaments and extra voices. Such extra voices might be complete or nearly complete , or simply notes added in one or two places, usually at cadences. In some intabulations the ornaments are more extensive than in others, but cadential embellishments are usual. The earlier intabulations of this type are generally more refined than the later ones, and were realised with greater care.

    Here the accompaniment is always in four voices. The upper parts 1—3 voices are doubled without the ornaments, above a bass. In a madrigal with three upper voices, extra notes are added only when the original upper voices have rests. Madrigals for solo voice are completed by adding two middle parts. These madrigals were not Roman and represented a different, though related, genre of composition from that of the canzonettas.

    Some other examples of such written-out accompaniment in four voices notated in score, are found in the Libro secondo of Diego Ortiz and in the intermedi to La pellegrina performed in , printed in , though in the latter case not for keyboard. In the madrigals, the harpsichord part is given in choirbook layout. We shall not attempt to answer here whether harpsichordists intabulated the parts, wrote them down in score or played from the various voices in choirbook layout or even from different partbooks, as suggested by Kinkeldey, Owen and Smith.

    This is already the case in the first half of the sixteenth century, especially for the left hand of the keyboard player. For example, voice progressions are much less clearly visible in lute tabulature, as the length of each individual note cannot be notated. For this reason, authors like Vincenzo Galilei stress that lutenists must understand the rules of counterpoint. Despite the relative disadvantages of lute tablature, many more examples of vocal accompaniments for lute have survived than for keyboard, both in print and in manuscript.

    He describes two kinds of intabulations with or without diminutions and two ways to intabulate with or without the intermediate step of a score. Subsequently, Diruta goes on to say, you take the soprano part and notate it with two battute semibreves per casella measure , and then do the same with the alto, tenor and bass voices, all on separate systems. When all the parts have been written down in score, the intabulator wrote the soprano voice on the staff with five lines, with the stems pointing upwards, and the bass voice in the lower staff with eight lines, with the stems pointing down.

    Next the tenor part was added above the bass. If it lay more than an octave above the bass, it was written on the top staff. Finally, the alto was added in the left hand, again unless it lay more than an octave away from the bass. For example, he does not write the alto voice over the bass if only one or two notes fall within an octave of the bass. If the soprano has a rest, he places the highest sounding voice, whether alto or even tenor, on the top staff. In tabulature it is not necessary to indicate where a given voice has a rest, as long as there is another voice-part on the Left hand technique 8.

    Although Diruta clearly states that the middle voices should be put into the left hand if possible, many modern editions put all the accompaniment of the bass in the right hand, a style of playing basso continuo current for example in eighteenth-century Germany. The first follows the practice frequently found in modern editions of early basso continuo realizations. The second alternative, which Heinichen calls the older German way, is often used nowadays by organists, and can also be found in some modern editions.

    These three versions should not sound different when played on a keyboard instrument, but the concentration of voices in the left hand in the third realisation gives the right hand completely different possibilities to make diminutions and other ornaments. The different functions of both hands explain why Diruta can use different fingering systems for the left and right hand, and why the staff for the left hand needs eight lines where that for the right hand only needs five. Although the voices are written as separate parts, the result, if intabulated according to Diruta, will be a chordal accompaniment in the left hand with a right hand free to improvise diminutions if so desired, or to add more chords.

    By contrast, in the standard eighteenth-century technique, such as that described by Heinichen , the right hand plays a chordal accompaniment and the left hand can be filled in if so desired. However, we see the same method in earlier intabulations, such as the canzonettas and madrigal intabulations in the Verovio prints of the s. He then explains that the numbers show where the finger should be placed on the fingerboard to produce the required sound.

    He points out that it is only necessary to reproduce the sign that indicates the smallest note value.

    https://jyocouejnalcou.ml It is not necessary to repeat this sign, as it is valid until the smallest note value changes. Lieto subsequently demonstrates how to put the canto into lute tablature, then the alto, the tenor and finally the bass. He subsequently provides tables in where each note can be found on the fingerboard. For those who do not know how to sing, that is, to read mensural notation, Lieto or his printer Matthio Cancer uses an interesting notational system in which notes are defined by their distance in frets or semitones from the F, C and G clef.

    Like Lieto, Galilei presents tables showing the position of each note on the fingerboard, though he uses normal mensural notation for the scales. Galilei used the lute to teach the rules of counterpoint, which players had to master in order to follow the voices and decide when the rules of music ficta applied. However, lute tablature indicates these two different notes with two different signs. Another sign, a small cross, indicates that one voice continues to sound, Lieto All the examples in tablature are rather crude woodcuts, whereas the text and examples in mensural notation are all printed neatly from moveable type.

    This confirms yet again that printing tablatures was a complicated matter. For a in depth study of Il Fronimo see Canguilhem The freer but still contrapuntal type of intabulations and the chordal type, in which the doubling of the voices no longer has utmost priority, go in a different direction. Repercussions of breves or semibreves with or without dots can be found in the lute parts. If the repercussion is in the bass, it is frequently an octave lower or higher, as will be shown in chapter Although Galilei stated that the use of unisons adds grace, such examples are infrequent in the Verovio lute tablatures.

    Two three-voice villanelle, with characteristic parallel fifth movement, include the upper voice, with text, in the right hand, and the two other voices, without text, on the left-hand staff. There are however two exceptions. All the intabulated arie accommodate the melody in the right hand, with chords in the left hand. Chords are generally added in the right hand only at cadences, mainly on the final chord, which tend to be in six voices.

    In general, however, the chords are in four voices, sometimes going down to three parts or even two for short passages on lighter parts of the bar, and sometimes filling up to six parts see figure 8. On final chords, the left and right hand tend to share a note, which is written down in both hands, and one chord is added in the right hand m.

    Some pieces in Magl. The intabulations in all these manuscripts show similar traits to those printed by Verovio. The middle parts can move freely into the right hand if the distance from the bass is too great, or if the left hand is playing diminutions. The The art of intabulating right hand will thus be free to make diminutions or, in the case of more multi-voiced or homophonic compositions or at cadences, to add chords as the performer sees fit.